中美新冷戰》南海戰爭宣言?美國國務卿龐畢歐聲明全文(中英對照)

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南海已成為中美新冷戰最重要的競技場之一,美國13日祭出大動作,國務卿龐畢歐發布重磅聲明,重申美方支持「自由開放的印度洋─太平洋區域」,痛批中國在南海大部分區域的主權聲索「完全非法」、傷害沿岸各國主權,表明美國將針對南海地區強化相關政策,絕不容許中國在南海建立「海洋帝國」。

對此,中國駐美大使館發聲明反批華府無視中國和東協國家維護南海和平穩定的努力,肆意歪曲客觀事實和國際法,渲染地區緊張局勢,挑撥中國與地區國家關係,對中方進行無理指責。中方敦促美方切實恪守在南海領土主權問題上不持立場的承諾,尊重地區國家維護南海和平穩定的努力,不要再做地區和平穩定的干擾者、破壞者和攪局者。

龐畢歐(Mike Pompeo)聲明〈美國對於南海海事聲索的立場〉(U.S. Position on Maritime Claims in the South China Sea)全文:

美國支持一個自由開放的印度洋─太平洋區域,今天我們要針對一個非常重要、爭議頻生的區域──南海──強化我們的政策。我們表明:北京當局對於南海大部分區域的外海資源的聲索,以及它企圖掌控這些資源的蠻橫行動,完全沒有法理位據。

The United States champions a free and open Indo-Pacific. Today we are strengthening U.S. policy in a vital, contentious part of that region — the South China Sea. We are making clear: Beijing’s claims to offshore resources across most of the South China Sea are completely unlawful, as is its campaign of bullying to control them.

對南海,我們致力於保持和平與穩定,維護符合國際法的海洋自由,確保商業活動通行無礙,反對任何以脅迫、武力解決爭端的作法。我們與許多盟邦以及夥伴共享這些深厚、長遠的利益,它們向來支持一套以規則為基礎的國際秩序。

In the South China Sea, we seek to preserve peace and stability, uphold freedom of the seas in a manner consistent with international law, maintain the unimpeded flow of commerce, and oppose any attempt to use coercion or force to settle disputes. We share these deep and abiding interests with our many allies and partners who have long endorsed a rules-based international order.

這些共享的利益正面臨史無前例、來自中國的威脅。北京當局透過恫嚇來動搖南海沿岸國家的主權權利,試圖強迫它們放棄外海資源、樹立中國單方霸權、以「強權決定是非」取代國際法。北京的明目張膽已行之有年。2010年,時任中國外交部長楊潔箎對東協國家外長表示:「中國是大國,其他國家是小國,事實就是如此。」中國掠奪式的世界觀在21世紀並無容身之地。

These shared interests have come under unprecedented threat from the People’s Republic of China (PRC). Beijing uses intimidation to undermine the sovereign rights of Southeast Asian coastal states in the South China Sea, bully them out of offshore resources, assert unilateral dominion, and replace international law with “might makes right.” Beijing’s approach has been clear for years. In 2010, then-PRC Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi told his ASEAN counterparts that “China is a big country and other countries are small countries and that is just a fact.” The PRC’s predatory world view has no place in the 21st century.

中國沒有任何法理依據,在南海為所欲為。北京當局在2009年正式宣布南海「九段線」的主張,然而迄今並未提出一致的法理基礎。2016年7月12日,常設仲裁法院一致判決,根據中國也簽署的1982年《聯合國海洋法公約》,中國的海事聲索不具國際法的法理基礎。對於本案絕大部分的主張,常設仲裁法院都站在原告菲律賓這邊。

The PRC has no legal grounds to unilaterally impose its will on the region. Beijing has offered no coherent legal basis for its “Nine-Dashed Line” claim in the South China Sea since formally announcing it in 2009. In a unanimous decision on July 12, 2016, an Arbitral Tribunal constituted under the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention – to which the PRC is a state party – rejected the PRC’s maritime claims as having no basis in international law. The Tribunal sided squarely with the Philippines, which brought the arbitration case, on almost all claims.

美國先前就已表明,《聯合國海洋法公約》也明文指出,常設仲裁法院的判決是終審判決,對原告與被告雙方具法律約束力。今天我們正式宣布,對於中國在南海的海事聲索,美國的立場與常設仲裁法院的判決一致。特別是下列的聲索:

As the United States has previously stated, and as specifically provided in the Convention, the Arbitral Tribunal’s decision is final and legally binding on both parties. Today we are aligning the U.S. position on the PRC’s maritime claims in the SCS with the Tribunal’s decision. Specifically:

◆黃岩島與南沙群島,針對常設仲裁法院判決屬於菲律賓專屬經濟海域或大陸棚的區域,中國沒有法律依據提出海事聲索。中國在這些區域對於菲律賓漁業與外海能源開發計劃的騷擾,以及中國單方面獲取相關資源的作法,都是不合法的。根據常設仲裁法院具法律約束力的判決,對於美濟礁與仁愛暗沙,中國沒有任何合法的領土或海事聲索可言,也不得衍生出任何領土或海事聲索,兩者都完全屬於菲律賓的主權權利與法律管轄權。

◆The PRC cannot lawfully assert a maritime claim – including any Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) claims derived from Scarborough Reef and the Spratly Islands – vis-a-vis the Philippines in areas that the Tribunal found to be in the Philippines’ EEZ or on its continental shelf. Beijing’s harassment of Philippine fisheries and offshore energy development within those areas is unlawful, as are any unilateral PRC actions to exploit those resources. In line with the Tribunal’s legally binding decision, the PRC has no lawful territorial or maritime claim to Mischief Reef or Second Thomas Shoal, both of which fall fully under the Philippines’ sovereign rights and jurisdiction, nor does Beijing have any territorial or maritime claims generated from these features.

◆由於北京當局未能對其南海提出合法、一致的海事聲索,對於中國在南沙群島聲稱擁有主權的島嶼(不影響其他國家對這些島嶼的主權聲索),美國反對中國任何超出12海浬領海的海域聲索。因此,美國反對中國對萬安灘(越南外海)、北康暗沙(馬來西亞外海)、汶萊專屬經濟海域、大納土納島(印尼外海)周邊海域的海事聲索。中國在這些海域騷擾其他國家漁業或能源開發計劃的舉動,或者單方面進行漁業或能源開發,都是違法之舉。

◆As Beijing has failed to put forth a lawful, coherent maritime claim in the South China Sea, the United States rejects any PRC claim to waters beyond a 12-nautical mile territorial sea derived from islands it claims in the Spratly Islands (without prejudice to other states’ sovereignty claims over such islands). As such, the United States rejects any PRC maritime claim in the waters surrounding Vanguard Bank (off Vietnam), Luconia Shoals (off Malaysia), waters in Brunei’s EEZ, and Natuna Besar (off Indonesia). Any PRC action to harass other states’ fishing or hydrocarbon development in these waters – or to carry out such activities unilaterally – is unlawful.

◆中國對於曾母暗沙沒有任何合法的領土或海事聲索(包括衍生的聲索),該暗沙完全淹沒在水下,距離馬來西亞僅50海浬,距離中國本土海岸卻遠達1000海浬。中國經常宣稱曾母暗沙是「中國最南端的領土」,但國際法一清二楚:像曾母暗沙這種水下地型不得被任何國家聲索,也不能衍生海事區域。曾母暗沙(位於海面下方20公尺)現在不是、也從來不是中國的領土,北京當局不能根據它來主張任何合法的海事權利。

◆The PRC has no lawful territorial or maritime claim to (or derived from) James Shoal, an entirely submerged feature only 50 nautical miles from Malaysia and some 1,000 nautical miles from China’s coast. James Shoal is often cited in PRC propaganda as the “southernmost territory of China.” International law is clear: An underwater feature like James Shoal cannot be claimed by any state and is incapable of generating maritime zones. James Shoal (roughly 20 meters below the surface) is not and never was PRC territory, nor can Beijing assert any lawful maritime rights from it.

世界不會容許中國在南海建立海洋帝國,美國將與東南亞盟邦以及夥伴站在一起,保護其外海資源的主權權利,符合國際法規範各國的權利與義務。我們將與國際社會一起努力,捍衛海洋自由、尊重各國主權,反對任何試圖在南海或更廣大區域實現「強權決定是非」的作為。

The world will not allow Beijing to treat the South China Sea as its maritime empire. America stands with our Southeast Asian allies and partners in protecting their sovereign rights to offshore resources, consistent with their rights and obligations under international law. We stand with the international community in defense of freedom of the seas and respect for sovereignty and reject any push to impose “might makes right” in the South China Sea or the wider region.

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