紐西蘭北島 世界第一條有人權的河誕生了

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紐西蘭北島 世界第一條有人權的河誕生了

紐西蘭北島 世界第一條有人權的河誕生了.

紐西蘭北島 世界第一條有人權的河誕生了

建立於 2017/03/20 上稿編輯: 鄒敏惠 摘譯自2017年3月15日ENS紐西蘭,威靈頓報導;姜唯編譯;蔡麗伶審校

紐西蘭原住民毛利人歷經數十年的努力,終於幫他們的聖河旺阿努伊河(Whanganui River)爭取到等同於人的法律地位。紐西蘭國會15日三讀通過「旺加努伊河索賠處理法案」(Whanganui River Claims Settlement Bill),賦予旺阿努伊河和人相同的權利、義務和責任,創下世界首例。

新法將北島上的旺加努伊河——從山上的源頭到入海——視為法律上的人,有自己的權利,且可以保護自身的權利和內在價值。

紐西蘭的旺加努伊河(Whanganui)。圖片來源:Felix Engelhardt(CC BY 2.0)

超過200位旺加努伊部落後代慶祝法案通過的歷史時刻,流下歡喜的淚水。「從1850年代中期起,旺加努伊部落就開始要求政府重視旺加努伊河的健康和河流社群住民的福祉,並力爭將部落權利以及部落和河流的關係入法。」旺加努伊部落主席和首席談判官艾伯特(Gerrard Albert)說,「八年前,旺加努伊部落展開這場紐西蘭史上最長的訴訟,為旺加努伊河爭取人權。這是一場漫長、艱困的戰鬥。」

「我們一向認為,旺加努伊河是一個不可分割的整體,包括始於北島中部山脈終於海洋的所有實體和精神元素。我們為河流的力量而戰。我們視河流為祖先,在法律中盡可能實現這樣的觀念,並確保人們瞭解這樣的觀念,與這個觀念共存。」艾伯特說。

「賦予河流人權是一個很特殊的做法。這樣的做法反映了旺加努伊部落的觀念,旺加努伊河一直以來深植在部落的傳統習俗中。」紐西蘭檢察總長芬雷森(Christopher Finlayson)說。

旺加努伊河(Whanganui)秋景。圖片來源:Felix Engelhardt(CC BY 2.0)

新法內容包括8000萬紐幣補償金和100萬建立法律框架的費用。政府也會再額外提供3000萬競爭基金,幫助促進旺加努伊河的健康和福祉。

「這是一個具開創性的立法。政府承諾會和旺加努伊部落合作,確保索賠處理完成。」芬雷森說。 World’s First: New Zealand River Given Legal PersonhoodWELLINGTON, New Zealand, March 15, 2017 (ENS)

The Whanganui River today was recognized by the New Zealand Parliament as having its own legal identity with all the rights, duties and liabilities of a person.

New Zealand’s indigenous Maori people, or Iwi, won an decades-long legal battle, making their cherished Whanganui River the first in the world to be granted the status of a person under law.

Te Awa Tupua, the Whanganui River Claims Settlement Bill, passed its third reading in Parliament on Wednesday, establishing a new legal framework for the river.

The bill recognizes the river on the North Island as an indivisible and living whole from the mountains to the sea. It gives the river legal personality and standing in its own right and enshrines in law and protects its rights and innate values.

Over 200 descendants of Whanganui Iwi witnessed Parliament pass the Te Awa Tupua Bill into law and celebrated the historic moment with music and with tears.

“Since the mid-1850s Whanganui Iwi have challenged the Crown’s impact on the health and wellbeing of the river and those who lived on it, and have fought to have their rights and their relationship with the River recognized,” said Gerrard Albert, the chair of Nga Tangata Tiaki o Whanganui and the lead negotiator for the Whanganui iwi.

“Eighty years ago Whanganui Iwi started what was to become the longest running court case in New Zealand history over who owned the bed of the river. It has been a long, hard battle,” he said.

“We have always believed that the Whanganui River is an indivisible and living whole – Te Awa Tupua – which includes all its physical and spiritual elements from the mountains of the central North Island to the sea,” Albert said.

“We’ve always fought for the mana of the river. We treat the river as a tupuna, as an ancestor, and we needed to find something that would approximate that in law and uphold it. And from there, ensure that people understand it and work with it,” he said.

“The approach of granting legal personality to a river is unique,” said Christopher Finlayson, who serves as New Zealand’s attorney general. “It responds to the view of the Iwi of the Whanganui River which has long recognized Te Awa Tupua through its traditions, customs and practice.”

Financial redress of NZ$80 million is included in the settlement as well as an additional $1 million contribution towards establishing the legal framework for the river.

The Crown will also contribute $30 million towards a contestable fund to further the health and wellbeing of the Whanganui River.

“This is an innovative settlement,” Finlayson said. “The Crown is committed to working alongside Whanganui Iwi to ensure the success of this settlement for Te Awa.”

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS 河流國際新聞紐西蘭水文原住民 作者 蔡麗伶(LiLing Barricman)

In my healing journey and learning to attain the breath awareness, I become aware of the reality that all the creatures of the world are breathing the same breath. Take action, here and now. From my physical being to the every corner of this out of balance's planet. 姜唯

如果有一件事是重要的,如果能為孩子實現一個願望,那就是人類與大自然和諧共存。 延伸閱讀

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