印度變種病毒該了解什麼?未來恐需第三劑疫苗

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【看CP學英文】歐洲疾病預防控制中心 (ECDC) 週三預告, 所有在歐盟傳播的SARS-CoV-2 病毒當中,Delta 變種病毒將於8 月底占90%。

The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) on Wednesday warned that the Delta strain will represent 90 percent of all SARS-CoV-2 viruses circulating in the European Union by the end of August.

根據台灣衛生部疾病管制署提供的數據,這個數字看起來應是對台灣(以及亞洲許多國家)的一個警告,因為台灣完成兩劑疫苗接種的人數只佔總人口的 0.1%。

This number should sound as a warning to Taiwan (and many countries across Asia), knowing that the percentage of people fully vaccinated here totaled 0.1 percent of the population, according to data provided by Taiwan CDC.

以驚人的速度複製 | Replicating at an Alarming Rate

Delta變種病毒是冠狀病毒的一個變異,在印度首次發現以來,已在 80 多個國家出現。世界衛生組織將其取名Delta,該組織一向以希臘字母命名顯著的變種病毒。

The Delta variant is a version of the coronavirus that has been found in more than 80 countries since it was first detected in India. It got its name from the World Health Organization, which names notable variants after letters of the Greek alphabet.

根據 Vox.com製作的這段影片病毒會不斷變異,而大多數變化都無關緊要。但有某些變異毒株可能會演變成更有傳染性的病毒,導致更嚴重的疾病或成為疫苗保護外的病毒風險。

Viruses constantly mutate and most changes aren’t concerning, according to this newly released video created by Vox.com. But there is a worry that some variants might evolve enough to be more contagious, causing more severe illness or evading the protection that vaccines provide as a result.

專家表示,Delta變種病毒更容易傳播,是因為突變使其更容易附著在人類體內的細胞上。

Experts say the Delta variant spreads more easily because of mutations that make it better at latching onto cells in our bodies.

在英國,該變種病毒現在佔所有新感染人數的 90%。在美國,則佔了 20%,美國衛生官員也表示它可能成為該國的主要新冠病毒株。

In the United Kingdom, the variant is now responsible for 90% of all new infections. In the U.S., it represents 20% of infections, and health officials say it could become the country’s dominant type as well.

在印度南部韋洛爾基督教醫學院 (Christian Medical College at Vellore) 研究病毒的雅各布.約翰博士(Dr. Jacob John) 告訴美聯社,目前這種變種病毒是否會使人病情加重有待釐清,因為需要搜集更多數據。

It’s not clear yet whether the variant makes people sicker since more data needs to be collected, Dr. Jacob John, who studies viruses at the Christian Medical College at Vellore in southern India, told The Associated Press.

研究報告表明,現有的疫苗對變種病毒有效,包括 Delta 變種病毒。英格蘭的研究人員表示,與僅接種一劑疫苗的人相比,接種兩劑阿斯利康和輝瑞疫苗的人能獲得更好的保護力。

Studies have shown that the available vaccines work against variants, including the Delta variant. Researchers in England said that those who got both doses of the AstraZeneca and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines were better protected than those who only got one dose.

這就是為什麼專家說全面接種疫苗是很重要的。這也是為什麼他們說讓全球皆能獲得疫苗如此重要,這其中也包括正在努力獲得疫苗的台灣。

It is why experts say it’s important to be fully vaccinated. And it’s why they say making vaccines accessible globally is so critical, including for Taiwan which is struggling to procure vaccine doses.

新冠疫苗「加強劑」的需求飆升 | Soaring Need for COVID ‘booster’ shot

《衛報》報導稱作為一項實驗的一部分,數千名志願者可能會注射第三劑 COVID-19 疫苗,以尋找哪些疫苗可以用作「加強」劑以預防新變種。

The Guardian reported that thousands of volunteers will likely be injected with a third dose of the COVID-19 vaccine as part of a trial to explore which ones could be used as “booster” doses to protect against new variants.

此舉意在防止醫院因今年冬天潛在的新一波感染而被搞得不堪重負。同時,英國又訂購了 6000 萬劑輝瑞疫苗,以確保在需要時可以從今年秋天開始生產加強疫苗。

The move aims to prevent hospitals from being overwhelmed by a potential new wave of infections this winter. In the meantime, the UK has ordered another 60 million doses of Pfizer/BioNTech Covid vaccine to ensure that booster vaccines can be made from this fall if needed.

這些疫苗將採用與目前提供的疫苗相同的配方,而不是經過調整以解決新的流行變種病毒(例如在印度首次發現的 B.1.617.2)疫苗的修改版本。

These doses will be of the same formulation as those currently offered, rather than a modified version of the vaccine tweaked to address new circulating variants such as B.1.617.2, which was first detected in India.

除了輝瑞(Pfizer)疫苗外,Cov-Boost實驗也將檢查在志願者已經接受的兩劑輝瑞或阿斯利康疫苗的情況下,給予牛津/阿斯利康疫苗或其他五種疫苗作為加強劑的影響。

In addition to the Pfizer jab, the Cov-Boost trial will examine the impact of giving the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine or five other vaccines as a booster, on top of the two doses of the Pfizer or AstraZeneca vaccines volunteers will already have received.

研究人員要求在 12 月或 1 月接種第一劑疫苗的 30 歲以上成年人報名參加這項研究,該研究於 6 月初在英國的 18 個試驗點開始。

The researchers asked adults aged 30 years or older who received their first vaccine dose in December or January to sign up for the study which started at 18 trial sites across the UK in early June.

停止給冠狀病毒這麼多機會 | Stop Giving Coronavirus So Many Opportunities

全世界缺乏疫苗意味著該病毒能夠迅速傳播,並在複製時發生變異。經過無數次隨機突變後的結果是,有跡象表明病毒已經開始適應我們的自然防禦機制。

The lack of vaccines worldwide has meant to the virus was able to spread quickly, and by extension, mutate as it replicates. The result is that after countless random mutations, there are signs that the virus is beginning to adapt to our natural defenses.

且由於病毒隨時間變異是完全正常的,我們不應期望它會停止。阻止這些變化的唯一真正方法是停止給病毒這麼多機會。

And because it’s completely normal for a virus to change over time, we shouldn’t expect it to stop. The only real way to stop those changes is to stop giving the virus so many opportunities.

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