沙國改革移工勞權因受虐情況多 「允許期滿換工作」保障移工

賴 正琳
·2 分鐘 (閱讀時間)
<p>November 2, 2018 – Jakarta, Indonesia – Indonesian activists from Migrant Care stands with a placard during a protest about the execution of Indonesian migrant worker Tuti Tursilawati in front of the Embassy of Saudi Arabia at Jakarta, Indonesia, on Friday, November 2, 2018. Tuti Tursilawati, a migrant worker from Majalengka, Indonesia, was executed on Monday, seven years after she was convicted of murdering her employer in the Saudi city of Taif. Many women from Indonesia work as maids in the Middle East and various Asian countries, often leaving their families behind for the promise of steady income</p>

November 2, 2018 – Jakarta, Indonesia – Indonesian activists from Migrant Care stands with a placard during a protest about the execution of Indonesian migrant worker Tuti Tursilawati in front of the Embassy of Saudi Arabia at Jakarta, Indonesia, on Friday, November 2, 2018. Tuti Tursilawati, a migrant worker from Majalengka, Indonesia, was executed on Monday, seven years after she was convicted of murdering her employer in the Saudi city of Taif. Many women from Indonesia work as maids in the Middle East and various Asian countries, often leaving their families behind for the promise of steady income

<p>November 2, 2018 – Jakarta, Indonesia – Indonesian activists from Migrant Care stands with a placard during a protest about the execution of Indonesian migrant worker Tuti Tursilawati in front of the Embassy of Saudi Arabia at Jakarta, Indonesia, on Friday, November 2, 2018. Tuti Tursilawati, a migrant worker from Majalengka, Indonesia, was executed on Monday, seven years after she was convicted of murdering her employer in the Saudi city of Taif. Many women from Indonesia work as maids in the Middle East and various Asian countries, often leaving their families behind for the promise of steady income</p>

November 2, 2018 – Jakarta, Indonesia – Indonesian activists from Migrant Care stands with a placard during a protest about the execution of Indonesian migrant worker Tuti Tursilawati in front of the Embassy of Saudi Arabia at Jakarta, Indonesia, on Friday, November 2, 2018. Tuti Tursilawati, a migrant worker from Majalengka, Indonesia, was executed on Monday, seven years after she was convicted of murdering her employer in the Saudi city of Taif. Many women from Indonesia work as maids in the Middle East and various Asian countries, often leaving their families behind for the promise of steady income

移工權益長期以來是台灣需要重視和保障的議題,但在台灣,仍有許多對移工來說「不平等」的條例或規則。在同樣倚賴外來人口補足基層勞力的沙烏地阿拉伯,於近期修改「卡拉法制度」,讓移工能夠在工作合同期滿後自由更換工作,讓移工的權利更受保護。

根據阿拉伯當地媒體報導,大部分海灣國家對於外國移工都採取「卡拉法制度」,亦及將移工與單一雇者捆綁在一起,因此雇主的權力很大,可以自行更新或終止勞工在該國的居住權和工作狀態。由於雇主權力過大,時常傳出虐待案例,尤其是從事建築和家庭照護工作的移工容易受到僱主虐待,例如沒收工人護照、強迫加班和苛扣工資。

依照沙烏地阿拉伯修改後的規定,移工可以在工作合同期滿後,自由更換工作,只要有按規定通知雇主即可,不需要徵詢雇主同意。另外,工人往後不需要雇主許可,也可以出國旅行。沙烏地阿拉伯政府更表示,會為沒有拿到合法合同和合法工資的移工提供協助和制定法律。由於沙烏地阿拉伯是海灣國家中人口最多之國,這次的改革有望帶動海灣國家一同改變。

在台灣,移工無法任意轉換工作,如果要換工作還需要支付仲介大筆的「買工費」(來之前亦已支付過海外仲介費用,海外仲介則稱這筆費用為聘僱費『recruitment fee』),讓付出辛苦勞力、本身家境並不優渥的他們還要再被剝削一遍。

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